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|dossier||COM(2017)8 - Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and ...|
1. CONTEXT OF THE PROPOSAL
• Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
Article 16 i of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), as introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, establishes the principle that everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning them. Moreover, in Article 16(2) TFEU, the Lisbon Treaty introduced a specific legal basis for adopting rules on the protection of personal data. Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines the protection of personal data as a fundamental right.
The right to the protection of personal data also applies to the processing of personal data by EU institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, 1 the main piece of existing EU legislation on personal data protection in the Union institutions, was adopted in 2001 with two objectives in mind: to protect the fundamental right to data protection and to guarantee the free flow of personal data throughout the Union. It was complemented by Decision No 1247/2002/EC. 2
On 27 April 2016, the European Parliament and the Council adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679), which will become applicable on 25 May 2018. This Regulation calls for Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 to be adapted to the principles and rules laid down in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in order to provide a strong and coherent data protection framework in the Union and to enable both instruments to be applicable at the same time 3 .
It is consistent with the coherent approach to personal data protection throughout the Union to align, as far as possible, the data protection rules for Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies with the data protection rules adopted for the Member States. Whenever the provisions of the proposal are based on the same concept as the provisions of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, these two provisions should be interpreted homogeneously, in particular because the scheme of the proposal should be understood as the equivalent of the scheme of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. 4
The review of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 also takes into account the results of enquiries and stakeholder consultations, and the evaluation study on its application over the last 15 years.
This initiative is not within the Regulatory Fitness Programme (REFIT).
• Consistency with existing policy provisions in the policy area
The proposal aims to align the provisions of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 with the principles and rules laid down in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in order to provide a strong and coherent data protection framework in the Union. The proposal also incorporates the relevant rules laid down in Regulation (EC) XXXX/XX [e-Privacy Regulation] with regard to the protection of terminal equipment of end-users.
• Consistency with other Union policies
- Not applicable
- Not applicable
- Not applicable
- Not applicable
- CHAPTER II - PRINCIPLES
- CHAPTER III - RIGHTS OF THE DATA SUBJECT
- CHAPTER IV - CONTROLLER AND PROCESSOR
- CHAPTER V - TRANSFER OF PERSONAL DATA TO THIRD COUNTRIES OR INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
- CHAPTER VI - THE EUROPEAN DATA PROTECTION SUPERVISOR
- CHAPTER VII - COOPERATION AND CONSISTENCY
- CHAPTER VIII - REMEDIES, LIABILITY AND PENALTIES
- CHAPTER IX - IMPLEMENTING ACTS
- CHAPTER X - FINAL PROVISIONS
2. LEGAL BASIS, SUBSIDIARITY AND PROPORTIONALITY
• Legal basis
The protection of natural persons in relation to the processing of their personal data is a fundamental right laid down in Article 8 i of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
This proposal is based on Article 16 TFEU, which is the legal basis for adopting data protection rules. This Article allows for the adoption of rules relating to the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies when carrying out activities which fall within the scope of Union law. It also allows for the adoption of rules relating to the free movement of personal data, including personal data processed by those institutions, bodies, offices and agencies.
• Subsidiarity (for non-exclusive competence)
The subject- matter of this Regulation falls within the domain of exclusive competence of the Union, since only the Union can adopt rules governing the processing of personal data by the Union’s institutions.
In accordance with the principle of proportionality, to achieve the basic objectives of ensuring an equivalent level of protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and the free flow of personal data throughout the Union it is necessary and appropriate to lay down rules on processing personal data by Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. This Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary for achieving the objectives pursued in accordance with Article 5 i of the Treaty on European Union.
• Choice of the instrument
A Regulation is considered the appropriate legal instrument to define the framework on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and the free movement of such data. It provides natural persons with legally enforceable rights, specifies the data processing obligations of the controllers in the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. It also provides for an independent supervisory authority, the European Data Protection Supervisor, to be responsible for monitoring the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies.
3. RESULTS OF EX-POST EVALUATIONS, STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTS
The Commission carried out stakeholder consultations in 2010 and 2011 and an impact assessment in the context of preparing the data protection reform package which informs on the changes proposed to Regulation (EC) No 45/2001. In this context, the Commission also conducted a survey of Commission data protection coordinators (DPCs). 5
As regards the practical application of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 by Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies, information was gathered from the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS), other Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies, other Commission DG’s and an external contractor. A questionnaire was send to the Network of data protection officers (DPOs). 6
The data protection officers from a number of Union’s institutions, bodies, offices and agencies held workshops on the reform of Regulation 45/2001 on 9 July 2015, 22 October 2015, 19 January 2016 and 15 March 2016.
The Commission decided in 2013 to conduct an evaluation study on the application to date of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, which it outsourced to an external contractor. The final deliverables of the evaluation study (final report, five case studies and article-by-article analysis) were submitted to the Commission on 8 June 2015 7 .
The evaluation showed that the governance system structured around DPOs and the EDPS is effective. It found that the sharing of powers between DPOs and the EDPS is clear and well balanced, and that both have an appropriate range of powers. Difficulties could, however, arise from a lack of authority due to insufficient support for the DPOs from their management.
The evaluation study indicated that Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 could be better enforced through the use of sanctions by the EDPS. Increased use of its supervisory authority powers could lead to better implementation of data protection rules. Another conclusion was that data controllers should adopt a risk management approach and perform risk assessments before carrying out processing operations in order to better implement data retention and security requirements.
The study also showed that existing rules in Chapter IV of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 on the telecommunications sector are outdated and that there is a need to align this Chapter with the e-Privacy Directive. According to the evaluation study there is also a need to make some key definitions of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 clearer. These include the identification of data controllers in the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies, the definition of recipients and extending the obligation on confidentiality to external processors.
The evaluation study also pointed to the need to simplify the regime of notifications and prior checks in order to increase efficiency and reduce the administrative burden.
The evaluator carried out an online survey in 64 Union institutions, agencies, offices and bodies. 422 responsible officials of data controllers, 73 DPOs, 118 DPCs and 109 IT respondents answered to the survey questions. The evaluator also carried out a series of stakeholder interviews. On 26 March 2015, the evaluator and the Commission organised a final workshop, attended by a number of data controllers, DPOs, DPCs, IT respondents and representatives of the EDPS.
• Collection and use of expertise
See reference to the evaluation study under the previous point.
• Impact assessment
The impact of the present proposal will fall mainly on the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. This has been confirmed by the information gathered from the EDPS, other Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies, Commission DG’s and the external contractor. Furthermore, the impact of the new obligations arising from Regulation (EU) 2016/679, with which the present regulation is to be aligned, has been assessed in the context of the preparatory works for the latter. This renders a specific impact assessment for this Regulation unnecessary.
• Regulatory fitness and simplification
• Fundamental rights
The right to the protection of personal data is laid down in Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Charter), Article 16 of the TFEU and Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. As underlined by the Court of Justice of the European Union, 8 the right to the protection of personal data is not an absolute right, but must be considered in relation to its function in society. 9 Data protection is also closely linked to respect for private and family life protected by Article 7 of the Charter.
The present proposal lays down rules on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and the free movement of such data.
Other fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter that could potentially be affected are: the freedom of expression (Article 11); the right to property and in particular the protection of intellectual property (Article 17(2)); the prohibition of any discrimination on grounds such as race, ethnic origin, genetic features, religion or belief, political opinion or any other opinion, disability or sexual orientation (Article 21); the rights of the child (Article 24); the right to a high level of human health care (Article 35); the right of access to documents (Article 42); and the right to an effective remedy and a fair trial (Article 47).
4. BUDGETARY IMPLICATIONS
See the financial statement in annex.
5. OTHER ELEMENTS
• Implementation plans and monitoring, evaluation and reporting arrangements
• Explanatory documents (for directives)
CHAPTER I - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1 defines the subject matter of the Regulation, and, as in Article 1 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, sets out the two objectives of the Regulation: protection of the fundamental right to data protection and to guarantee the free flow of personal data throughout the Union. It also provides for the main tasks of the European Data Protection Supervisor.
Article 2 determines the scope of the Regulation: it shall apply to the processing of personal data, by automated means or otherwise, by all Union institutions and bodies insofar as such processing is carried out in the exercise of activities all or part of which fall within the scope of Union law. The material scope of this Regulation is technologically neutral. The protection of personal data applies to the processing of personal data by automated means, as well as to manual processing if the personal data are contained or are intended to be contained in a filing system.
Article 3 contains definitions of terms used in the Regulation. Apart from the definitions of the ‘Union institutions and bodies’, ‘controller’, ‘user’ and ‘directory’, which are specific to this Regulation, the terms used in this Regulation are defined in Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Regulation (EU) 0000/00 [new ePrivacy Regulation], Directive 00/0000/EU [Directive establishing the European Electronic Communications Code] and Commission Directive 2008/63/EC.
Article 4 sets out the principles relating to personal data processing, which correspond to those in Article 5 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Compared to Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 it adds the new principles of transparency and of integrity and confidentiality.
Article 5 is based on Article 6 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and sets the criteria for lawful processing, with the sole exception of the criterion of the controller's legitimate interest which is not applicable to the public sector and thus should not apply to Unions institutions and bodies. Article 5 maintains the criteria already established under Article 5 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Article 6 clarifies the conditions for processing for another compatible purpose in line with Article 6 i of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Compared to Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 this new provision provides more flexibility and legal certainty with regard to further processing for compatible purposes.
Article 7 clarifies, in accordance with Article 7 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the conditions for consent to be valid as a legal ground for lawful processing.
Article 8 sets out, in line with Article 8 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, further conditions for the lawfulness of the processing of personal data of children in relation to information society services offered directly to them. It sets 13 years as the child's minimum age for valid consent.
Article 9 sets out, in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 rules providing for a specific level of protection on the transmission of personal data to recipients, other than Union institutions and bodies, established in the Union and subject to Regulation (EU) 2016/679 or Directive (EU) 2016/680. It clarifies that, where it is the controller initiating the transmission, it should demonstrate necessity and proportionality of the transmission.
Article 10 sets out the general prohibition for processing special categories of personal data and the exceptions from this general rule, building on Article 9 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 10 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Article 11 sets out, in accordance with Article 10 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and in line with Article 10(5) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, the conditions for processing of personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences.
Article 12 clarifies the controller's information obligations towards the data subject, in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, providing that if the personal data processed by a controller do not permit the controller to identify a natural person, the data controller should not be obliged to acquire additional information in order to identify the data subject for the sole purpose of complying with any provision of this Regulation. However, the controller should not refuse to take additional information provided by the data subject in order to support the exercise of his or her rights.
Article 13 sets out, based on Article 89 i of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the rules on safeguards relating to processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes.
Section 1 – Transparency and modalities
Article 14 introduces, based on Article 12 of of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the obligation on controllers to provide transparent, easily accessible and understandable information and procedures and mechanism for exercising the data subject's rights, including where appropriate, means for electronic requests, requiring response to the data subject's request within a defined deadline, and the motivation of refusals. As the Union institutions and bodies are not expected to charge, in any circumstance, fees related to the administrative costs for providing the information, this possibility was not taken over from Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Section 2 – Information and access to data
Article 15 specifies the controller's information obligations towards the data subject where personal data are collected from the data subject, building on Article 13 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 11 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, providing information to the data subject, including on the storage period, the right to lodge a complaint and in relation to international transfers.
Article 16 further specifies, building on Article 14 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, the controller's information obligations towards the data subject where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject providing information to the source from which the data are originating. It also maintains the possible derogations in Regulation (EU) 2016/679, e.g. there will be no such obligation if the data subject already has the information, the provision of such information proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort for the controller, where the personal data must remain confidential subject to an obligation of professional secrecy regulated by Union law or if the recording or disclosure are expressly provided by law. This could apply for example in proceedings by services competent for social security or health matters.
Article 17 provides, in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, on the data subject's right of access to their personal data, adding new elements, such as the obligation to inform the data subjects of the storage period, and of the rights to rectification and to erasure and to lodge a complaint.
Section 3 – Rectification and erasure
Article 18 sets out the data subject's right to rectification, based on Article 16 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Article 19 lays down, in accordance with Article 17 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 16 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, the data subject's right to be forgotten and to erasure. It provides the conditions of the right to be forgotten, including the obligation of the controller which has made the personal data public to inform third parties on the data subject's request to erase any links to, or copy or replication of that personal data.
Article 20 introduces the right to have the processing restricted in certain cases, avoiding the ambiguous terminology “blocking” used in Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and ensuring consistency with the new terminology under Article 18 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Article 21 provides, in line with Article 19 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 17 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, for the controller's obligation to communicate to the recipients to whom the personal data have been disclosed any rectification or erasure of personal data or restriction unless it proves impossible or involves disproportionate effort. The controller shall also inform the data subject of those recipients if he or she requests it.
Article 22 introduces, in accordance with Article 20 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the data subject's right to data portability, i.e. the right to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which he or she has provided to a controller or to have such personal data transmitted directly to another controller, where technically feasible. As a precondition and in order to further improve access of individuals to their personal data, it provides the right to obtain from the controller those data in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format. This right only applies where the processing is based on the data subject's consent or on a contract concluded by him or her.
Section 4 – Right to object and automated individual decision-making
Article 23 provides for the data subject's rights to object based on Article 21 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 18 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Article 24 concerns the data subject's right not to be subject to a measure based solely on automated processing including profiling in line with Article 22 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Section 5 – Restrictions
Article 25 allows for restrictions of the data subject's rights laid down in Articles 14 to 22 and in Articles 34 and 38 and of principles laid down in Article 4 (in so far as its provisions correspond to the rights and obligations provided for in Articles 14 to 22). Such restrictions should be laid down in legal acts adopted on the basis of the Treaties or the internal rules of Union institutions and bodies. In case a possibility of such a restriction is not provided for in the legal acts adopted on the basis of the Treaties or the internal rules of Union institutions and bodies, the latter could impose an ad hoc restriction if it respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms, in relation to a specific processing operation, and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard one or more of the objectives allowing the restrictions on data subject rights. This approach is in line with Article 23 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. However, by contrast to Article 23 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and in line with Article 20 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 the provision does not provide for the possibility to restrict the right to object and the right not to be subject to decisions based solely on automated processing. The requirements for restrictions are in line with the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights, as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights respectively.
Section 1 – General obligations
Article 26 builds on Article 24 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and introduces the 'principle of accountability' by describing the obligation of responsibility of the controller to comply with this Regulation and to demonstrate compliance, including by way of adoption of appropriate technical and organisational measures and, where appropriate, internal policies and mechanisms for ensuring such compliance. Article 24(3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 was not kept in this provision as the Union institutions and bodies should not adhere to codes of conduct or certification mechanisms.
Article 27 sets out, in accordance with Article 25 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the obligations of the controller arising from the principles of data protection by design and by default.
Article 28 on joint controllers builds on Article 26 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to clarify the responsibilities of joint controllers - either Union institutions or bodies or not - as regards their internal relationship and towards the data subject. This provision rules on the situation where all joint controllers are covered by the same legal regime (this Regulation) and the situation where some are covered by this Regulation and some by another legal instrument (Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Directive (EU) 2016/680, Directive (EU) 2016/681 and other specific data protection regimes concerning Union institutions or bodies).
Article 29 builds on Article 28 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further develops Article 23 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, to clarify the position and obligations of processors, including the determination that a processor who infringes the Regulation by determining the purposes and means of processing shall be considered to be a controller in respect of that processing.
Article 30 on the processing under the authority of the controller and processor is based on Article 29 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, laying down a prohibition for the processor or any person acting under the authority of the controller or of the processor, and having access to personal data to process those data except on instructions from the controller, unless required to do so by Union or Member State law.
Article 31 builds on Article 30 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, and introduces the obligation for controllers and processors to maintain documentation of the processing operations under their responsibility, instead of a prior notification to the EDPS as required by Article 25 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and the DPO register. By contrast to Regulation (EU) 2016/679, this provision does not make reference to representatives, as Unions institutions will not have representatives and will always have DPOs. References to transfers based on derogations for specific situations as in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 were not kept as those types of transfers are not envisaged in the present Regulation. The obligation to keep a record of processing activities may be centralised at the level of a Union institution or body. In such case, Union institutions and bodies have the possibility to keep their records of processing activities in the form of a publicly accessible register.
Article 32 clarifies, on the basis of Article 31 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the obligations of Union institutions and bodies for the co-operation with the EDPS.
Section 2 – Security of personal data and confidentiality of electronic communications
Article 33 obliges, in accordance with Article 32 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and further developing Article 22 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, the controller to implement appropriate measures for the security of processing extending that obligation to processors, irrespective of the contract with the controller.
Article 34 builds on Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and ensures the confidentiality of electronic communications within Union institutions and bodies.
Article 35 builds on the existing practice of Union institutions and bodies and protects the information related to the terminal equipment of end-users who are accessing publicly available websites and mobile applications offered by Union institutions and bodies, in accordance with Regulation (EU) XXXX/XX [new ePrivacy Regulation], in particular Article 8 thereof.
Article 36 is based on Article 38 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and protects personal data held in public and private directories of Union institutions and bodies.
Articles 37 and 38 introduce an obligation to notify personal data breaches, in accordance with Articles 33 and 34 Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Section 3 – Data protection impact assessment and prior consultation
Article 39 builds on Article 35 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and introduces the obligation of controllers and processors to carry out a data protection impact assessment prior to processing operations which are likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. This obligation will apply in particular in case of systematic and extensive evaluation of personal aspects relating to natural persons which is based on automated processing, including profiling, processing on a large scale of special categories of data or systematic monitoring of a publicly accessible area on a large scale.
Article 40 is based on Article 36 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and concerns the cases where authorisation by, and consultation of, the EDPS is mandatory prior to the processing. However, the first paragraph of Article 40 reproduces recital 94 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and is aimed at clarifying the scope of the obligation to consult.
Section 4 – Information and legislative consultation
Article 41 provides for an obligation for Union institutions and bodies to inform the EDPS when drawing up administrative measures and internal rules relating to the processing of personal data.
Article 42 provides for an obligation for the Commission to consult the EDPS following the adoption of proposals for a legislative act and of recommendations or proposals to the Council pursuant to Article 218 TFEU and when preparing delegated acts or implementing acts that have an impact on the protection of individuals’ rights and freedoms with regard to the processing of personal data. Where those acts have a particular importance for the protection of individuals’ rights and freedoms with regard to the processing of personal data, the Commission may also consult the European Data Protection Board. In such cases both entities should coordinate their work with a view to issue a joint opinion. A time limit of 8 weeks for the issue of the advice in aforementioned cases is established, with possible derogations for urgent cases and otherwise where appropriate, for example when the Commission is preparing delegated and implementing acts.
Section 5 – Obligation to react to allegations
Article 43 lays down the obligation of controllers and processor to react to allegations after the EDPS decided to refer a matter to them.
Section 6 – Data protection officer
Article 44 builds on Article 37 i (a) Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 24 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 to provide a mandatory DPO for Unions institutions and bodies.
Article 45 builds on 38 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 24 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 to set out the position of the DPO.
Article 46 builds on 39 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 24 and on the second and third paragraphs of the Annex to Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 to provide the core tasks of the DPO.
Article 47 further builds on Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and spells out the general principle, in accordance with Article 44 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, that compliance with other provisions of this Regulation and the conditions laid down in Chapter V are mandatory for any transfers of personal data to third countries or international organisations, including for onward transfers of personal data from the third country or an international organisation to another third country or to another international organisation.
Article 48 sets that a transfer of personal data to a third country or international organisation may take place where the Commission has decided pursuant to Article 45(3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 that an adequate level of protection is ensured in the third country, a territory or one or more specified sectors within that third country, or within the international organisation and the personal data are transferred solely to allow tasks covered by the competence of the controller to be carried out. Paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article have been taken over from Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 as they are useful elements for monitoring of the level of protection in third countries and international organisations.
Article 49 builds on Article 46 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and requires for transfers to third countries, where no adequacy decision has been adopted by the Commission, to adduce appropriate safeguards, in particular standard data protection clauses and contractual clauses. Binding corporate rules, codes of conduct and certification mechanisms could be used, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679, by processors other than Union institutions and bodies. The fourth paragraph of this Article on the obligation of Union institutions and bodies to inform the EDPS of categories of cases where they have applied this Article corresponds to Article 9(8) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and is kept due to its specificity. The fifth paragraph builds on the grandfathering of existing authorisations laid down in Article 46(5) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Article 50 clarifies in accordance with Article 48 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, that judgment of courts or decisions of administrative authorities of third countries requiring a transfer or disclosure of personal data may only be recognised or enforceable in any manner if based on an international agreement, such as a mutual legal assistance treaty, in force between the requesting third country and the Union, without prejudice to other grounds for transfer pursuant to this Chapter.
Article 51 builds on Article 49 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and spells out and clarifies the derogations for a data transfer. This applies in particular to data transfers required and necessary for the protection of important grounds of public interest, for example in cases of international data transfers involving competition authorities, tax or customs administrations, or between services competent for social security matters or for fisheries management. The fifth paragraph on the obligation to inform the EDPS of categories of cases where derogations have been relied upon for a transfer corresponds to the current Article 9(8) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001.
Article 52 is based on Article 50 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and explicitly provides for international co-operation mechanisms for the protection of personal data between the EDPS, in cooperation with the Commission and the European Data Protection Board, and the supervisory authorities of third countries.
Article 53 builds up on Article 41 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and concerns the establishment of the EDPS.
Article 54 builds on Article 42 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and on Article 3 of Decision 1247/2002/EC and sets out the rules for the appointment of the EDPS by the European Parliament and the Council. It also specifies the duration of its term of office: five years.
Article 55 builds on Article 43 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and on Article 1 of Decision 1247/2002/EC and provides for regulations and general conditions governing the performance of duties of the EDPS and his or her staff and the financial resources.
Article 56 builds on Article 52 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 44 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and clarifies the conditions for the independence of the EDPS, taking into account the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Article 57 sets, based on Article 45 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, the duties of secrecy of the EDPS during and after the term of office with regard to confidential information which has come to his or her knowledge in the course of the performance of the official duties.
Article 58 builds on Article 57 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 46 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and sets the tasks of the EDPS, including hearing and investigating complaints and promoting the awareness of the public of risks, rules, safeguards and rights.
Article 59 is based on Article 58 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 47 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and sets out the powers of the EDPS.
Article 60 builds on Article 59 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 48 Regulation (EC) 45/2001 and lays down the obligation for the EDPS to draw up an annual activity report.
Article 61 builds on Article 61 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 46(f) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and introduces explicit rules on cooperation of EDPS with national supervisory authorities.
Article 62 provides for the obligations of the EDPS where other Union acts refer to this Article in the framework of coordinated supervision with national supervisory authorities. It seeks to implement a single model of coordinated supervision. This model could be used for coordinated supervision of large IT systems such as Eurodac, Schengen Information System II, Visa Information System, Customs Information System or Internal Market Information System, but also for supervision of some Union agencies where a specific model of cooperation between EDPS and national authorities is established, such as Europol. The European Data Protection Board should serve as a single forum for ensuring the effective coordinated supervision across the board.
Article 63 is based on Article 77 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Article 32 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and provides the right of any data subject to lodge a complaint with the EDPS. It lays down also the obligation of the EDPS to handle and inform the data subject of the progress and the outcome of the complaint within a deadline of three months after which the complaint shall be deemed to have been rejected.
Article 64 maintains Article 32 i of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, setting out the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Union to hear all disputes which relate to the provisions of this Regulation, including claims for damages.
Article 65 sets out the right to compensation, for both material and non-material damage, subject to the conditions, including on liability, provided for in the Treaties.
Article 66 builds on Article 83 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and provides the EDPS with the power to impose administrative fines on Union institutions and bodies, as a sanction of last resort and only where Union institution or bodies failed to comply with an order by the EDPS referred to in Article 59(2)(a) to (h) and (j). The article also specifies the criteria for deciding on the amount of the administrative fine in each individual case, while the maximum yearly ceilings are inspired by amounts of fines applicable in some Member States.
Article 67 allows, in accordance with Article 80 i of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, certain bodies, organisations or associations to lodge a complaint on behalf of the data subject.
Article 68 provides, in line with Article 33 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, for specific rules aimed at protecting Union's staff, which lodge a complaint with the EDPS regarding an alleged infringement of the provisions of this Regulation, without acting through official channels.
Article 69 builds on Article 49 of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and provides on sanctions applicable to failures to comply with the obligations of this Regulation by officials or other civil servants of the European Union.
Article 70 contains the provision for the Committee procedure needed for conferring implementing powers on the Commission in the cases where in accordance with Article 291 TFEU uniform conditions for implementing legally binding acts of the Union are needed. The examination procedure applies.
Article 71 repeals Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and Decision No 1247/2002/EC and provides that references to the two repealed instruments are to be read as references to the present Regulation.
Article 72 clarifies that the current terms of office of the European Data Protection Supervisor and the Assistant Supervisor shall not be affected by this Regulation. and that Articles 54 i, (5) and (7), and Articles 56 and 57 of the Regulation apply to the current Assistant Supervisor until the end of his term, i.e. until 5 December 2019.
Article 73 sets out 25 May 2018 as the date of entry into force of this Regulation in order to ensure consistency with the date of application of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.